Global food consumption has enhanced the production and distribution of food, causing several economic, social, environmental and economic problems worldwide. According to a statement by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), food production needs to be increased, but on the same time its negative impact must decrease.

Logistics in the food chain have an important impact on the sustainability of the food sector. For logistics service providers, the key sustainability indicators include carbon emission, fuel use, trained employees and absenteeism. The most relevant opportunities for the improvement of carbon emission reduction referring to transportation of products are vehicle adjustments, fuel adjustments and transport management systems.

From the total carbon emissions of food systems, one-fifth is due to transportation.

Emission factors for transporting food worldwide as of 2018, by selected modes of transport

(in kilograms of CO2 equivalent per metric ton-kilometer)

Air: 1,13

Road: 0,2 (temperature controlled: 0,66)

Rail: 0,05

Sea: 0,01