About 1 in 9 older adults (>75 years) have frailty while frailty increases significantly with age and it is more common in adults aged 85 years or more. Frailty has been associated with many adverse health outcomes such as increased risk of falls, hospitalisation and mortality

The World Health Organisation (2017) [44] defines the frailty syndrome when three or more of the following criteria are present:

  1. Weakness measured by low hand grip strength
  2. Slowness measured by decreased walking speed
  3. Low level of physical activity
  4. Low energy or self-reported exhaustion
  5. Unintentional weight loss

Following a high-quality diet and preventing mal- and under-nutrition may help to delay or reduce the incidence of frailty in older adults.