References Topic 1

[1] Morris AL, Mohiuddin SS (2023). Biochemistry, Nutrients. [Updated 2023 May 1]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. 

[2] Newsholme, P. (2021). Cellular and metabolic mechanisms of nutrient actions in immune function. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75(9), 1328–1331.

[3] Savarino, G., Corsello, A., & Corsello, G. (2021). Macronutrient balance and micronutrient amounts through growth and development. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 47(1).

[4] Jéquier, E. (1994). Carbohydrates as a source of energy. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59(3), 682S-685S.

[5] The European Food Information Council (EUFIC) (2019). What Are Proteins and What Is Their Function in the Body?What Are Proteins and What Is Their Function in the Body?. Food Facts for Healthy Choices.

[6] The National Health Service (NHS). (2023). Fat: the facts. NHS choices.

[7] World Health Organization (WHO). (n.d.). Micronutrients.

[8] Lykstad J, Sharma S (2023). Biochemistry, Water Soluble Vitamins. [Updated 2023 Mar 6]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing.

[9] The National Health Service (NHS) inform (2020). Food and nutrition | NHS inform. 

[10] National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (2021). The Five food groups. Eat For Health.,of%20vitamins%2C%20especially%20vitamin%20C.

[11] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.(FAO) “Food-Based Dietary Guidelines.” Accessed July 17, 2023.

[12] World Health Organization (WHO) (2019). Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Healthy diet / World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean p. WHO-EM/NUT/282/E

[13] Prolepsis Institute (2014). National Dietary Guidelines for the adult population. ed: Athens, Greece, Lambrakis Press Group.

[14] Cena, H., & Calder, P. C. (2020). Defining a Healthy Diet: Evidence for the role of contemporary dietary patterns in Health and disease. Nutrients, 12(2), 334.

[15] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2023). “Know Your Risk for Heart Disease.”.,can%20lead%20to%20heart%20disease.

[16] World Health Organization (WHO) (2023) “Cardiovascular Diseases.” World Health Organization.

[17] Harvard T.H Chan, School of Public Health (2022) “Preventing Heart Disease.” The Nutrition Source.,sodium%2C%20and%20foods%20with%20trans.

[18] Korat, A. V. A., Willett, W. C., & Hu, F. B. (2014). Diet, Lifestyle, and Genetic Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes: A Review from the Nurses’ Health Study, Nurses’ Health Study 2, and Health Professionals’ Follow-Up Study. Current Nutrition Reports, 3(4), 345–354.

[19] Neuenschwander, M., Ballon, A., Weber, K., Norat, T., Aune, D., Schwingshackl, L., & Schlesinger, S. (2019). Role of diet in type 2 diabetes incidence: umbrella review of meta-analyses of prospective observational studies. BMJ, l2368.

[20] Roser, Max, and Hannah Ritchie (2015). “Cancer.” Our World in Data. %20cancer%20annually&text=The%20Global%20Burden%20of%20Disease,world%20is%20due%20to%20cancer.

[21] World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Cancer: a Global Perspective. Continuous Update Project Expert Report 2018. Available at Accessed on 31.10.2023.

References Topic 2

  1. EUFIC – The European Food Information Council (Last Updated 2023). What is processed food? What is processed food? | Eufic Accessed: 2023-06-28.
  2. EUFIC – The European Food Information Council (2019). Processed food: What is the purpose of food processing?, Processed food: what is the purpose of food processing? | Eufic Accessed: 2023-06-28.
  3. Petrus, R. R., Sobral, P. J. D. A., Tadini, C. C., & Gonçalves, C. B. (2021). The NOVA classification system: A critical perspective in food science. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 116, 603–608.
  4. Monteiro, C.A., Cannon, G., Lawrence, M., Costa Louzada, M.L. and Pereira Machado, P (2019). Ultra-processed foods, diet quality, and health using the NOVA classification system. Rome, FAO.
  5. EUFIC – The European Food Information Council. ABC on food processing (Infographic). (Last Updated: 2018). ABC on food processing | Eufic Accessed: 2023-06-28.
  6. Monteiro, C. A., Levy, R. B., Claro, R. M., De Castro, I. R. R., & Cannon, G. (2010). A new classification of foods based on the extent and purpose of their processing. Cadernos De Saude Publica, 26(11), 2039–2049.×2010001100005
  7. Pagliai, G., Dinu, M., Madarena, M. P., Bonaccio, M., Iacoviello, L., & Sofi, F. (2020). Consumption of ultra-processed foods and health status: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Nutrition, 125(3), 308–318.
  8. Popkin. B. (2020). Ultra-processed foods’ impacts on health. 2030 – Food, Agriculture and rural development in Latin America and the Caribbean, No. 34. Santiago de Chile. FAO.
  9. Fiolet, T., Srour, B., Sellem, L., Kesse‐Guyot, E., et al.. (2018). Consumption of ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort. BMJ, k322.
  10. Srour, B., Fezeu, L., Kesse‐Guyot, E., et al. (2019). Ultra-processed food intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective cohort study (NutriNet-Santé). BMJ, l1451.
  11. Lockyer, S., Spiro, A., Berry, S., He, J., Loth, S., Martinez‐Inchausti, A., Mellor, D., Raats, M. M., Sokolović, M., Vijaykumar, S., & Stanner, S. (2023). How do we differentiate not demonise – Is there a role for healthier processed foods in an age of food insecurity? Proceedings of a roundtable event. Nutrition Bulletin, 48(2), 278–295.
  12. Fardet, A., & Rock, E. (2020). Ultra-Processed foods and food system sustainability: what are the links? Sustainability, 12(15), 6280.
  13. Anastasiou, K., Baker, P., Hadjikakou, M., Hendrie, G. A., & Lawrence, M. (2022). A conceptual framework for understanding the environmental impacts of ultra-processed foods and implications for sustainable food systems. Journal of Cleaner Production, 368, 133155.
  14. UN-Nutrition (2023). Nutrition and the environment − Nurturing people, protecting the planet. Rome, FAO on behalf of UN-Nutrition.
  15. BDA The Association of UK Dietitians. Food labelling: nutrition information: Food Fact Sheet Accessed: 2023-07-06
  16. Mialon, M. (2023). Front–of–pack nutrition labeling: ultra-processed foods are the elephant in the room. The Lancet Regional Health – Americas, 18, 100442.
  17. Clodoveo, M. L., Tarsitano, E., Sabbá, C., Gesualdo, L., & Corbo, F. (2021). Med-index: a food product labeling system to promote adherence to the mediterranean diet encouraging producers to make healthier and more sustainable food products. Italian Journal of Food Science, 33(4), 67–83.
  18. Saving lives with RUTF (ready-to-use therapeutic food) Accessed: 2023-07-10
  19. UNICEF Supply Division. Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food: Market and Supply (Updated May 2023).
  20. Popkin, B. M., Barquera, S., Corvalán, C., Hofman, K., Monteiro, C. A., Swart, E. C., & Taillie, L. S. (2021). Towards unified and impactful policies to reduce ultra-processed food consumption and promote healthier eating. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 9(7), 462–470.
  21. DIATROFI – Program on Food Aid and Promotion of Healthy Nutrition. Accessed: 2023-07-25
  22. Dalma, A., Kastorini, C., Zota, D., Veloudaki, A., Petralias, A., Yannakoulia, M., & Linos, A. (2016). Perceptions of parents and children, participating in a school-based feeding programme in disadvantaged areas in Greece: a qualitative study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 42(2), 267–277.

References Topic 3

  1. FAO and WHO (2019). Sustainable healthy diets – Guiding principles. Rome.
  2. FAO (2022). Thinking about the future of food safety – A foresight report. Rome.
  3. WHO (2021). Plant-based diets and their impact on health, sustainability and the environment: a review of the evidence: WHO European Office for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2021. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  4. Craig, W. J., Mangels, A. R., Fresán, U., Marsh, K., Miles, F. L., Saunders, A., Haddad, E., Heskey, C., Johnston, P. K., Larson‐Meyer, E., & Orlich, M. J. (2021). The Safe and Effective Use of Plant-Based Diets with Guidelines for Health Professionals. Nutrients, 13(11), 4144.
  5. Medina, F. X., & Solé-Sedeño, J. M. (2023). Social Sustainability, Social Capital, Health, and the Building of Cultural Capital around the Mediterranean Diet. Sustainability, 15(5), 4664.
  6. The European Food Information Council. Towards more sustainable diets. Last Updated : 19 April 2018. Accessed: 19/07/2023
  7. The European Food Information Council. 9 practical tips for a healthy and sustainable diet. Last updated: 26 May 2023. Accessed: 19/07/2023
  8. European Union (2020). Farm to Fork Strategy. For a fair, healthy and environmentally-friendly food system.
  9. Farm to Fork strategy for a fair, healthy and environmentally-friendly food system Farm to Fork Strategy ( Accessed: 20/07/2023
  10. EAT- Summary Report of the EAT-Lancet Commission. Healthy Diets From Sustainable Food Systems- Food Planet Health, available at:
  11. Willett, W. C., Rockström, J., Loken, B., Springmann, M., Lang, T., Vermeulen, S. J., Garnett, T., Tilman, D., DeClerck, F., Wood, A., Jonell, M., Clark, M., Gordon, L., Fanzo, J., Hawkes, C., Zurayk, R., Rivera, J. Á., De Vries, W., Sibanda, L. M., . . . Murray, C. J. L. (2019). Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. The Lancet, 393(10170), 447–492.

References Topic 4

[1] World Health Organization (2021). Malnutrition [Factsheet]. Available at: 

[2] World Health Organization (2003). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization

[3] British Nutrition Foundation (2015). Life stages. Children. Available at: (Accessed 22.07.2023)

[4] Savarino, G., Corsello, A., & Corsello, G. (2021). Macronutrient balance and micronutrient amounts through growth and development. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 47(1).

[5] Popkin, B. M., D’Anci, K. E., & Rosenberg, I. H. (2010). Water, hydration, and health. Nutrition Reviews, 68(8), 439–458.

[6] Edmonds CJ, Burford D (2009). Should children drink more water? The effects of drinking water on cognition in children. Appetite;52:776–779.

[7] World Health Organization (2018). Guidelines: Saturated fatty acid and trans-fatty acid intake for adults and children. Geneva: World Health Organization; (Draft issued for public consultation in May 2018).

[8] World Health Organization (2015). Guideline: Sugars intake for adults and children. Geneva: World Health Organization.

[9] World Health Organization (2012). Guideline: Sodium intake for adults and children. Geneva: World Health Organization.

[10] Gundersen, C., & Ziliak, J. P. (2015). Food Insecurity And Health Outcomes. Health Affairs, 34(11), 1830–1839.

[11] Hanson, K. L., & Connor, L. M. (2014). Food insecurity and dietary quality in US adults and children: a systematic review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100(2), 684–692.

[12] Jun, S., Cowan, A. E., Dodd, K. W., et al. (2021). Association of food insecurity with dietary intakes and nutritional biomarkers among US children, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2016. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 114(3), 1059–1069.

[13] Kaiser, L., Lamp, C., Johns, M., Sutherlin, J., Harwood, J. O., & Melgar-Quiñónez, H. (2002). Food security and nutritional outcomes of Preschool-Age Mexican-American children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 102(7), 924–929. 

[14] Bhattacharya, J., Currie, J., & Haider, S. J. (2004). Poverty, food insecurity, and nutritional outcomes in children and adults. Journal of Health Economics, 23(4), 839–862.

[15] Ayala, A. S., & Meier, B. M. (2017). A human rights approach to the health implications of food and nutrition insecurity. Public Health Reviews, 38(1).

[16] World Health Organization (2006). Food and nutrition policy for schools. A tool for the development of school nutrition programmes in the European Region. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

[17] Fox, E., Davis, C. J., Downs, S., Schultink, W., & Fanzo, J. (2019). Who is the Woman in Women’s Nutrition? A Narrative Review of Evidence and Actions to Support Women’s Nutrition throughout Life. Current Developments in Nutrition, 3(1), nzy076.

[18] United Nations Children’s Fund (2021). UNICEF Programming Guidance. Prevention of malnutrition in women before and during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. New York: UNICEF.

[19] Ramakrishnan, U., Grant, F., Goldenberg, T., Zongrone, A., & Martorell, R. (2012). Effect of Women’s Nutrition before and during Early Pregnancy on Maternal and Infant Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 26(s1), 285–301.

[20] UNICEF (2023). Data: Monitoring the situation of children and women. Low birthweight. 2023 Available at: . Accessed on 26.07.23.

[21] Gu, H., Wang, L., Liu, L., Luo, X., Wang, J., Hou, F., Nkomola, P. D., Li, J., Liu, G., Meng, H., Zhang, J., & Song, R. (2017). A gradient relationship between low birth weight and IQ: A meta-analysis. Scientific Reports, 7(1).

[22] Jornayvaz, F. R., Vollenweider, P., Bochud, M., Mooser, V., Waeber, G., & Marques‐Vidal, P. (2016). Low birth weight leads to obesity, diabetes and increased leptin levels in adults: the CoLaus study. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 15(1).

[23] Marshall, N., Abrams, B., Barbour, L. A., Catalano, P. M., et al. (2022). The importance of nutrition in pregnancy and lactation: lifelong consequences. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 226(5), 607–632.

[24] Gernand, A. D., Schulze, K., Stewart, C. P., West, K. P., & Christian, P. (2016). Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 12(5), 274–289.

[25] Dean, S. V., Lassi, Z. S., Imam, A. M., & Bhutta, Z. A. (2014). Preconception care: nutritional risks and interventions. Reproductive Health, 11(S3). 

[26] Goldstein, R. F., Abell, S. K., Ranasinha, S., Misso, M., Boyle, J., et al. (2017). Association of gestational weight gain with maternal and infant outcomes. JAMA, 317(21), 2207. 

[27] Institute of Medicine (US) and National Research Council (US) Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines; Rasmussen KM, Yaktine AL, editors. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Re-examining the Guidelines. Washington D.C.: National Academies Press (US), 2009.

[28] Kominiarek, M. A., & Rajan, P. (2016). Nutrition recommendations in pregnancy and lactation. Medical Clinics of North America, 100(6), 1199–1215.

[29] Koletzko, B., Godfrey, K. M., Poston, L., Szajewska, H., et al. (2019). Nutrition During Pregnancy, Lactation and Early Childhood and its Implications for Maternal and Long-Term Child Health: The Early Nutrition Project Recommendations. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 74(2), 93–106. 

[30] NHS (National Health Services) UK. Have a healthy diet in pregnancy. April 2023. Available at: Accessed on 30/07/2023

[31] Tunçalp, Ö., Rogers, L. M., Lawrie, T. A., Barreix, M., Peña-Rosas, J. P., Bucagu, M., Neilson, J. P., & Oladapo, O. T. (2020). WHO recommendations on antenatal nutrition: an update on multiple micronutrient supplements. BMJ Global Health, 5(7), e003375.

[32] World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Recommendations on Antenatal Care for a Positive Pregnancy Experience: Summary. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2018. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

[33] Dror, D. K., & Allen, L. H. (2018). Overview of nutrients in human milk. Advances in Nutrition, 9, 278S-294S.

[34] Dent, E., Wright, O., Woo, J., & Hoogendijk, E. O. (2023). Malnutrition in older adults. The Lancet, 401(10380), 951–966.

[35] Russell, R. M. (2001). Factors in Aging that Effect the Bioavailability of Nutrients. Journal of Nutrition, 131(4), 1359S-1361S.

[36] Cichero, J. a. Y. (2018). Age-Related changes to eating and swallowing impact frailty: aspiration, choking risk, modified food texture and autonomy of choice. Geriatrics, 3(4), 69. 

[37] Pilgrim, A. L., Robinson, S., Sayer, A. A., & Roberts, H. C. (2015). An overview of appetite decline in older people. Nursing Older People, 27(5), 29–35.

[38] Beck, A. M., Seemer, J., Knudsen, A. W., & Munk, T. (2021). Narrative Review of Low-Intake Dehydration in Older Adults. Nutrients, 13(9), 3142.

[39] Cioffi, I., Marra, M., Pasanisi, F., & Scalfi, L. (2021). Prediction of resting energy expenditure in healthy older adults: A systematic review. Clinical Nutrition, 40(5), 3094–3103.

[40] Dorrington, N., Fallaize, R., Hobbs, D., Weech, M., & Lovegrove, J. A. (2020). A review of nutritional requirements of adults aged ≥65 years in the UK. Journal of Nutrition, 150(9), 2245–2256. 

[41] Boettger, S. F., Angersbach, B., Klimek, C., et al. (2018). Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D-deficiency in frail older hospitalized patients. BMC Geriatrics, 18(1). 

[42] Products, E. P. O. D. (2010). Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for water. EFSA Journal, 8(3).

[43] Clegg, A., Young, J., Iliffe, S., Rikkert, M. G. M. O., & Rockwood, K. (2013). Frailty in elderly people. The Lancet, 381(9868), 752–762. 

[44] WHO (2017). Clinical Consortium on Health Aging. Report on Consortium Meeting 1-2 December 2016; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2017; pp. 9–10.

[45] Lorenzo-López, L., Maseda, A., De Labra, C., Regueiro-Folgueira, L., Rodríguez-Villamil, J. L., & Millán-Calentí, J. C. (2017). Nutritional determinants of frailty in older adults: A systematic review. BMC Geriatrics, 17(1).

[46] Zhu, H., & An, R. (2013). Impact of home-delivered meal programs on diet and nutrition among older adults. Nutrition and Health, 22(2), 89–103.

[47] British Dietetic Association (2020). Tips to help with eating problems after Critical Illness- I find it difficult to swallow or chew. Critical Care Specialist Group. Accessed on 17.10.2023 at:

[48] Public Health England (2017). Helping older people maintain a healthy diet: A review of what works. Accessed on 17.10.23 at:

[49] Collodel A.G.P (2012). Food Security and Livelihoods Interventions for Older People in Emergencies. HelpAge International; London, UK. Available at:

References Topic 5



[3] Lyons, S., Burney, P., Ballmer‐Weber, B., Fernández‐Rivas, M., et al (2019). Food allergy in adults: Substantial variation in prevalence and causative foods across Europe. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, 7(6), 1920-1928.e11. 

[4]. EUFIC. Food allergy. Available at:

[5] Diaz-Osborn, N., & Osborn, S. B. (2016). Organizational structure and business and technology strategy of food companies to optimize development of foods for consumers with specific dietary needs. In Elsevier eBooks (pp. 43–62).

[6] Dinu, M., Abbate, R., Gensini, G. F., Casini, A., & Sofi, F. (2017). Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 57(17), 3640–3649.

[7] Gehring, J., Touvier, M., Baudry, J., Julia, C., Buscail, C., Srour, B., Herçberg, S., Péneau, S., Kesse‐Guyot, E., & Allès, B. (2021). Consumption of Ultra-Processed Foods by Pesco-Vegetarians, Vegetarians, and Vegans: Associations with Duration and Age at Diet Initiation. Journal of Nutrition, 151(1), 120–131.

[8] Hargreaves, S. M., Rosenfeld, D. L., Moreira, A. V. B., & Zandonadi, R. P. (2023). Plant-based and vegetarian diets: an overview and definition of these dietary patterns. European Journal of Nutrition, 62(3), 1109–1121.